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The gospel of smokers -Application of supercritical CO2 extraction in tobacco industry

 I.Extractionof tobacco specific components to improve the comprehensive benefits of tobacco

China is a bigtobacco country. Due to the geographical environment, planting technology, climateand other factors, a certain number of low-grade tobacco can not be purchasedevery year. These waste tobacco can not be burned or used as fertilizer, andbecome a burden for tobacco farmers. In addition, nearly 1/3 of the tobaccorods in the tobacco factory are thrown away as scrap. In the process ofcigarette making and processing, a small amount of tobacco, tobacco residue andother waste materials will be produced, and then processed into cigarettes willaffect the internal quality of cigarettes, such as direct waste, not only willproduce pollution, but also a waste of resources. However, these tobacco wastecontains a variety of valuable ingredients, such as nicotine, solanesol,carbohydrates, organic acids, etc. Nicotine, solanesol and other importantvaluable components in tobacco. By using the supercritical fluid extractionmethod, the valuable components such as nicotine and tobacco oil can beextracted, which can turn waste into treasure and improve the comprehensivebenefit of tobacco and protect the environment.

I.1 Nicotineextraction

Nicotine,also known as nicotine, is a unique alkaloid in tobacco, chemical name is1-Methyl-2 (3'-pyridyl) pyrrolidine, molecular formula C10H14N2, molecularweight 162, is a heterocyclic compound containing helium. Nicotine, thoughhighly toxic, is widely used in chemicals, pesticides and medicines. Nicotine,through its receptors acting on the central neurotransmitter system, increasesthe release of dopamine, thus protecting the pathogenesis of Parkinson'sdisease. Nicotine is also used as a drug for the treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, skin diseases, snake venom and insect bites. The demand forintermediate raw materials, especially high purity natural nicotine, has becomeone of the most popular products in the international market. Nicotine wasseparated and purified from tobacco leaves by supercritical CO2 extraction,acid-base pretreatment and column chromatography. The purity of nicotine wasover 98%.


I.2 Extractionof tobacco absolute oil

Tobacconet oil is a kind of high quality tobacco flavor similar to natural rawmaterials. Its volatile chemical constituents were identified by GC/MS, mainlyincluding 3-methylvalerate, pentanoic acid, solanedione, dihydroactinidinolide,daidzeone, beta-damascone, neophytadiene, beta-ionol, perilla lactone and othertobacco aromatic components. . Tobacco oil has the effect of penetratingtobacco aroma, making smoke sweet, delicate and soft, reducing stimulation,covering up impurities, significantly improving the smoking quality ofcigarettes. Tobacco oil was extracted from aromatic tobacco extract bysupercritical fluid mixture. The extraction temperature was 40 C, theextraction pressure was 25-30 MPa, the amount of entrainer was 4% - 6%, theflow rate of CO2 was 2L / min, and the extraction time was 3 hours. Theextraction rate of tobacco oil could be increased to more than 8%.


I.3 Extractionof Solanesol

Solanesol,a waxy white solid, is easily soluble in organic solvents with a melting pointof 41.5-42.5 degrees Celsius. Solanesol accounts for 0.3%-4.5% of totaltobacco. Solanesol plays an important role in biochemistry and is an importantraw material for drug synthesis. It is an intermediate in pan-cheese and canalso be used as a side chain of medicinal Coccinellin Q (a cardiac drug) andvitamin K. Because solanesol itself contains many non conjugated double bonds,it has a very strong ability to absorb free radicals. Using supercritical fluidextraction, solanesol can be extracted from tobacco residue or tobacco oil.


, extract Chinese herbalingredients, develop new cigarettes.

Chineseherbal medicine is a traditional Chinese medicine. As a natural medicine, ithas a long history and the output ranks first in the world. Chinese herbalmedicine can not only be health care, but also widely used in China's tobaccoindustry. Mainly used in the development of pharmaceutical health-carecigarettes, the use of its active ingredients to reduce the harm of cigarettes,and its application in the prevention and control of tobacco virus.

 Cigarettescontaining active ingredients of natural Chinese herbal medicine, with healthcare function, is an important branch of Chinese cigarettes, for supercriticalCO2 extraction technology in the extraction of Chinese herbal medicineingredients, bring a wide range of applications.

 At thesame time, some active Chinese herbal medicines also have certain effect onreducing tar and harmful components in cigarettes. The extracts of Schisandrachinensis, Herba Pogostemonis, Licorice and Dalbergia odorifera as cigaretteadditives can reduce the harmful free radicals in the smoke phase ofcigarettes. The herbal additive extracted from Astragalus membranaceus couldreduce the content of TPM (about 3.73 mg/branch) and the mutagenicity of TPM.The tar content of cigarette was reduced by 4-6 mg/cigarette, and the contentsof polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzo-a-pyrene and free radicals in tarwere greatly reduced by spraying 5% alcohol solution extracted from Shouwu andother Chinese herbal medicines into mixed cut tobacco. This physicochemicalmethod of reducing tar content in cigarettes with Chinese herbal medicine hasopened up a new way to improve the hygienic condition of cigarettes and easethe contradiction between smoking and health.

 Anotherapplication of Chinese herbal medicine in tobacco is to use its extracts toenhance the anti-virus ability of tobacco and improve the quality of tobaccoleaves. The results showed that Chinese herbal medicine 9, trans, wood and 0.1%ZnSO4 had positive effects on tobacco vegetative growth, photosyntheticperformance and root activity, and could also increase the activity oflipoxygenase, which could decrease the morbidity and disease index of mosaicvirus. Among them, nine and wood two had better effect. The scientificcompatibility of Coptis chinensis, Cortex Chenpi and Eucommia ulmoides couldinhibit the tissue metabolism and enzyme activity of tobacco plants. It couldbe used as a smoking-type flue-curing agent for tobacco leaves, which couldobviously improve the appearance and intrinsic quality of tobacco leaves andenhance the grade structure of tobacco leaves.

III.extraction of natural flavors and fragrances for tobacco use

 With theimprovement of people's living standards, the requirement of sensory quality ofcigarette products, such as aroma quantity, harmony and so on, is gettinghigher and higher. More and more people in the world believe in the concept of"natural is safe", so natural perfumes occupy an extremely importantposition in the fragrance and flavor industry. Because natural perfumes haveunique fragrance which can not be replaced by synthetic perfumes, they containa lot of trace components which have not yet been clarified, which have specialcontribution to the fragrance, and nature. Most of the flavors are non-toxicand side effects, so they are widely used in cigarette product design.

 Essentialoils, the volatile aromatic components of many plants, can be used as tobaccoflavors. Most of these components are unstable and vulnerable to heatdeterioration or volatilization. Supercritical CO2 extraction with lowoperating temperature is an ideal alternative to traditional steam distillationand organic solvent extraction.

 WithChina's entry into WTO, reducing coke and harm has become an urgent task forChina's tobacco industry. The technology of reducing coke and harm is a complextechnology. It requires that cigarettes should retain their high aroma whilereducing coke, and further safeguard the interests of consumers. In the use ofcomprehensive tar reduction technology, the aroma of cigarettes must bemaintained and improved by adding flavors and spices. In addition to addingtobacco oil, the extraction and application of natural flavors and spices isalso an important way. There are many reports about such researches both athome and abroad.

 Theaverage oil yield of the volatile oil extracted by supercritical CO2 liquid was3.36%. It was identified by GC-MS that 61 kinds of essential components werecontained in the volatile oil. The aroma of cigarettes could be improved andmodified obviously by adding aroma, covering up impurities, improvingaftertaste, making the smoke soft and delicate, and obviously improving thequality of smoke. Use. The extract of fenugreek seeds was used in the flavoringexperiment of cigarettes. Through the identification and evaluation of itscomponents, the conclusion was drawn that the quality of fenugreek seedsextracted by supercritical fluid extraction was higher than that extracted byordinary solvent.

 SupercriticalCO2 flow extraction was used to extract the essential oil from magnolia. Theyield of the essential oil was 4.2%, which was 73% higher than that of steamdistillation. The supercritical CO2 extraction method was used by GuangxiAcademy of Sciences to study Lingxiang extract. The average content ofLingxiang extract was more than 95% and the yield was more than 1.2%. Comparedwith the ordinary steam distillation method, the product of Lingxiang was 5-6times higher. The stability of Lingxiang product was good, the aroma wasunique, the aroma was strong, the aroma was natural, the color was good, thesolubility was good, and it was high. One of the natural tobacco flavor andspice products.

IV,application in tobacco analysis

 SupercriticalFluid Chromatography (SFC) has been developed by using SFE in chromatographictechniques. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SPC) is a chromatographicprocess in which supercritical fluids are used as mobile phases. It is aneffective and rapid method for the analysis of refractory and pyrolyticsubstances. Chromatographic analysis is fast, efficient, highly selective, highseparation efficiency, etc. It opens up a new way for the analysis of organiccompounds, and becomes an effective and rapid method for the analysis ofrefractory and pyrolytic polymers. It is widely used in tobacco analysis anddrug analysis. Tobacco analysis is mainly used to analyze the specificN-nitrosamines (TSNA) in tobacco. SFC is highly sensitive for the analysis oftobacco compounds. Fraccis et al. used capillary SFC to analyze nitrosaminesand nitrosamines in tobacco. The detection limit can reach p8.

 Supercriticalfluid chromatography (SFC) is a simple, sensitive and practical method for theanalysis of nicotine and other alkaloids in cigarettes and tobacco leaves withchloroform as extractant and SFC combined with IMD (Ion Mobility Detector).Compared with the current analytical methods, SFC-Ikm method not only has theadvantages of high sensitivity, but also has a relatively low cost ofinstrumentation. It is a very promising analytical method for the analysis ofnicotine and nicotine metabolites in tobacco. At the same time, supercriticalcarbon dioxide extraction can be used as an efficient sample pretreatmenttechnology for tobacco chemical composition analysis and cigarette qualityresearch. As a pretreatment method for tobacco chemical analysis, supercriticalcarbon dioxide extraction has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, good datareproducibility, high degree of automation and pollution-free. Thesupercritical carbon dioxide extracts of tobacco are mainly non-polar andweak-polar compounds, which are closely related to the quality of cigarettes.



 SEF-CO2high-pressure equipment investment and maintenance costs, high design andmanufacturing technology requirements, and extraction kettle can not becontinuously operated, low production capacity, followed by extremely weakfoundation in basic research, basic data is seriously lacking, resulting in itswidespread application in the tobacco industry is still facing somedifficulties, first plus industrial insurance. For reasons such as density, itis more difficult to make breakthroughs in research. With the close cooperationof different industries to solve some engineering and technical problems, andgradually improve the basic data, super-impending extraction in the tobaccoindustry will make greater progress.


 AlthoughSFC is highly sensitive in tobacco analysis, the number of compounds detectedis still very small, limited to small amounts of nitro and nitroso compounds.Therefore, the SFC instruments, methods and conditions for the research anddevelopment of compounds in tobacco have great potential.


 Atpresent, the residue after extraction of nicotine from tobacco residue can beused as raw material for the production of paper-making tobacco slices.However, there are few reports on the application of the residue afterextraction of natural flavors and Chinese herbal medicines in tobacco industry.